Images used on this website


Move bacteria by moving sugars
Zigmunds Orlovskis, John Innes Centre

Cross section of the vascular bundle of China aster Callistephus chinensis plant that contains a group of small cells in the center, fluorescing pink under UV light. These are the sucrose-transporting plant tissues that are the habitat for many parasitic bacteria and so of key interest to scientists at the John Innes Centre studying plant pathogens.

Phytophthora infestans

Late blight pathogen on a leaf
Sebastian Schornack, The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park

This image shows an infection site of the potato late blight pathogen on a leaf. The spreading pathogen hyphae are red-fluorescently labelled. Living leaf tissues are green, dead tissues are dark. Microscopic analysis of infection structures allows us to understand the lifestyles of different pathogens. This pathogen colonises living tissues first, but later kills the plant cells and therefore is classified as a hemibiotrophic pathogen.


Escherichia coli in the human intestine
Samuel Ellis, Institute of Food Research

Enteroaggregative E. coli adheres to cells in the human intestine in a ‘stacked brick’ pattern and is often associated with diarrhoeal illness. Scientists at the Institute of Food Research and the University of East Anglia on the Norwich Research Park are undertaking innovative research to generate new knowledge of the mechanisms underpinning gut health. In this study E. coli strain 042 was incubated with polarised T84 human intestinal epithelial cells under microaerobic conditions for 4 hours. Cells were then fixed and immunofluorescent labelling was performed to show nuclei (blue), actin (green) and E. coli (red). 20x magnification image.


Streptomyces glaucescens
Tobias Kieser

The soil bacterium S. glaucescens produces the antibiotic hydroxy-streptomycin, which is very similar to the first actinomycete antibiotic, streptomycin, discovered in 1943. Research carried out on actinomycetes at the John Innes Centre on the Norwich Research Park is revealing new insights into how these organisms make antibiotics. This knowledge can be used not only to increase production levels of antibiotics, but also to generate variants with potentially improved clinical efficacy.


Avenacin in oat root
Anne Osbourn (JIC)

The fluorescent compound in this cross-section of an oat root is the antimicrobial triterpene Avenacin. Produced by oat roots, it is tightly regulated within the outer cortical cells of root tips, where it protects against disease.


Fluorescence microscopy
Justin O’Grady

White blood cells (leukocytes) are cells of the immune system that defend the body against infectious disease and harmful invaders such as bacteria and viruses. Removing leukocytes from the blood with a magnet enables detection of the DNA signature of pathogens.